Stuart. A. Linder, M.D., F.A.C.S. is a Beverly Hills plastic and reconstructive surgeon specializing in breast augmentation, liposuction, tummy tuck, and more.
Dr. Linder is certified by the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons and is a diplomate of the American Board of Plastic Surgery (ABPS).
Plastic Surgery Articles
Written by: Stuart A. Linder, M.D., F.A.C.S.
Beverly Hills, Board Certified Plastic Surgeon
Gynecomastia has been well-defined as "woman-like breasts" in fact it has been found in as many as 40 to 60 percent of men, and can occur in one or both breasts. Risk factors associated with gynecomastia have included decrease in androgen production or increase in estrogen formation. It can also be associated with hormones such as anabolic steroids or even certain antibiotics, anti-ulcer medications, cancer chemotherapeutic drugs as well as recreational drugs such as marijuana and alcohol.
The best candidates are healthy men who are psychologically stable and have no medical conditions. Obese men should be discouraged from having gynecomastic surgery until they have had sufficient weight loss; they should be as close as possible to their normal baseline. Most risks are minimal and secondary, small revision surgeries can help with these if problems should arise. The risks of gynecomastic surgery may include: bleeding, hematomas, seromas, fluid collection, infections, skin loss, nipple loss, skin necrosis, asymmetry, and dimpling of the nipple areolar complex. We urge our patients who smoke to refrain from smoking for at least 14 days prior to their surgery; this is to reduce the incidence of vascular compromise and bleeding problems. Patients should be cleared prior to surgery by an endocrinologist in order to determine hormonal assay levels of testosterone and estrogen.
The surgery is performed on an outpatient basis in our Beverly Hills Surgical Center under general anesthesia by a Board Certified Anesthesiologist. Brighton Surgical Center is a State Licensed, Medicare certified, ambulatory facility. Surgical approaches include; Liposuction with direct excision through a periareolar incision ("partial subcutaneous mastectomy with liposuction") or a direct breast reduction and lift with Wise-pattern-like incisions or anchor scars. The approach is specifically dependent upon the amount of and the stage of gynecomastic tissue that you have.
For mild to moderate forms usually direct liposuction as well as an incision under the areolar and a partial subcutaneous mastectomy can be performed with a fantastic result. It is extremely important that compressive garments be worn after surgery and in most cases we have the patient use a chest upper pole band for four to six weeks after surgery to help you achieve the best result.Δ TOP